This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of physicians, pharmacists and nurses involved in the management of patients with bacterial and fungal bloodstream infections.
Statement of Need/Program Overview
Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) bloodstream infections continue to complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients and, consequently, to create substantial economic and human costs. These infections may lead to complications in approximately 30% of those patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and cost an estimated $25,000 per infection. Previous studies have shown that administration of inadequate antimicrobial treatment of bloodstream infections is associated with significantly higher mortality rate; therefore, strategies to limit bloodstream infections in the ICU have been developed to improve patient outcomes. Although healthcare providers are cognizant of measures to control infection, inconsistent application of these measures remains a concern in the ICU.
In this program, we present up-to-date information on the risk of acquiring nosocomial bloodstream infections, highlight the most common sites of these infections, and discuss strategies for preventing and controlling bloodstream infections in the ICU. The goals are to enhance awareness and understanding of risks for bloodstream infection and encourage consistent application of infection control measures to promote more favorable outcomes for patients.
After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:
- Identify patients at risk for bloodstream infections and multiple drug-resistant pathogens in the ICU
- Describe the epidemiology of bloodstream infections
- Outline an approach to the prevention and treatment of bloodstream infections
- Explain issues with adequate empiric therapy and the morbidity/mortality associated with inadequate treatment
- Describe de-escalation therapy and its implementation into clinical practice
George Karam, MD (CO-CHAIR)
Louisiana State University School of Medicine
New Orleans, LA
Marin H. Kollef, MD (CO-CHAIR)
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, MO
Thomas Fekete, MD (LOCAL MODERATOR)
Temple University School of Medicine
Physician Continuing Medical Education
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and Policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) and Advanced Studies in Medicine. PIM is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Pharmacist Continuing Education
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this continuing education activity for 1.5 contact hour(s) (0.15 CEUs) of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. (Universal Program Number - 809-999-07-071-H01)
If you have received credit for UPN 809-999-07-071-L01, you are not eligible for this activity.
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) assesses conflict of interest with its instructors, planners, managers and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of CME activities. All relevant conflicts of interest that are identified are thoroughly vetted by PIM for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies utilized in this activity, and patient care recommendations. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality CME activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of a commercial interest.
The faculty reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:
- George Karam, MD, reports receiving consulting fees and fees for non-CME services from Merck & Co, Inc.
- Marin Kollef, MD, reports receiving consulting fees from Bard; Elan Corporation; Merck & Co, Inc; and Pfizer, Inc.
- Thomas Fekete, MD, reports receiving fees for non-CME services from Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Merck & Co, Inc; and Wyeth.
The planners and managers reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:
PIM Clinical Reviewers: Jan Hixon, RN; Trace Hutchison, PharmD; and Linda Graham, RN, have no real or apparent conflicts of interest to report.
Matthew Horn, MD, has no real or apparent conflicts of interest to report.
Melinda Castro has no real or apparent conflicts of interest to report.
Method of Participation
There are no fees for participating and receiving CME credit for this activity. During the period November 2007 through November 30, 2008, participants must 1) read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures; 2) study the educational activity; 3) electronically complete the posttest by recording the best answer to each question; and 4) complete the evaluation form.
A statement of credit will be issued automatically only upon completing the activity evaluation form and a completed posttest with a score of 70% or better.
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM), Advanced Studies in Medicine (ASiM) and Merck do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of PIM, ASiM, and Merck. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.